Alesi started his karting career in 2013 before competing in the KF3 category where he finished 14th overall and the KFJ category in 2014 with Baby Race SRL where he finished 28th in the standings. Going into 2015, it was announced that he would be stepping up from karting to cars to compete in the French F4 Championship. During his season, he took pole position from his first race along with setting the fastest lap and claiming a victory. Alesi secured himself two more victories followed by two junior victories, claiming second in the junior category and fourth in the overall standings.
Later that year, Alesi took part in the GP3 post-season testing with Arden International and Jenzer Motorsport. In the February of 2016, it was announced that Giuliano would race that season with Trident. He managed to score his first points in the series during the feature race of Spa-Francorchamps followed by his first GP3 win in the sprint race at Silverstone 2017. Alesi completed three full years with Trident in the GP3 Series, placing 22nd, 5th and 7th in the standings.
As of March 2016, Giuliano Alesi was inducted into the Ferrari Driver Academy, alongside his fellow GP3 Driver and Formula One Driver Charles Leclerc.
FIA Formula 2
Sticking with his team for a fourth year, Alesi moved up to Formula 2. He competed in Trident with fellow team mate Ralph Boschung. He managed to secure 20 points, putting him 15th in the standings.
After four years with Trident, for the FIA Formula 2 2020 season Alesi is moving to BWT HWA RaceLab where he will drive alongside Artem Markelov who is returning to Formula 2 after competing six races in the championship last season.