Jérôme started karting in 1999, taking his first win in 2000 when he won the ICA Junior Monaco Kart Cup. He later took home 3rd in the 2001 and the 2002 Formula A Monaco Kart Cup. He then went on to win the 2002 Formula A World Cup. From there, he graduated to the Formula Renault 1.6 Belgium in 2003 where he finished first in the championship. Alongside this, he raced in the Formula König where he finished 4th. In 2004, Jérôme joined Graff Racing to compete in the Championnat de France Formula Renault 2.0 for 14 races to finish 4th and the Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0 for 7 races where he took 2 podiums and 16th in the standings.
D’Ambrosio continued in the Formula Renault Italia and Italia Winter Series with Euronova Racing in 2005 where he took 3 podiums and a single win to take 4th in Italia and 2 wins in the Winter Series to finish 3rd. He also raced in the Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0 with the team where he finished 15th and the Italian Formula 3000 Light where he finished 6th. Jérôme graduated to the Formula Renault 3.5 Series in 2006 where he joined Tech 1 Racing. He took 36th in the standings. He also spent his first year in the Euroseries 3000 with Euronova Racing where he took 3 podiums and 5th in the standings. Alongside this, he entered the FIA GT Championship with GT2 Belgian Racing.
In 2007, d’Ambrosio joined Cram Competition for 16 races in he International Formula Master where he took ten podiums and a single win to take exactly 100 points and a championship win. From 2008 onwards, Jérôme began his GP2 experience. He debuted with DAMS in both the regular series and the Asia Series. He took 11th in both championships, taking two podiums in each. Between 2008 and 2009, he stuck with DAMS for the Asia Series where he finished runner up with 4 podiums, with one being a win. D’Ambrosio remained with DAMS for another year in the GP2 Series in 2009 where he took 3 podiums and 9th in the standings. 2010 was his final year in the GP2 Series and he joined DAMS once more to take one win, one other podium and 21 points to finish 12th in the standings.
Jérôme raced as a part of M-Sport in the Blancpain Endurance Series for 5 races. He took 15 points and 17th in the standings. He also raced at the Stock Car Brasil in 2018 with Cimed Racing Team.
He debuted in Formula One in 2010 when he joined Renault F1 Team and Virgin Racing as a test driver. From there, Jérôme joined Marussia Virgin Racing for a full season in 2011 where he finished 24th before spending a single race in 2012 with Lotus F1 Team. He then returned to Lotus for 2013 as a test driver for his final Formula One year.
FIA Formula E
D’Ambrosio debuted in to the FIA Formula E Series during the 2014 to 2015 with Dragon Racing. Across 11 races, he took 3 podiums and 113 points to finish 4th. From there, he returned with the team in the 2015 to 2016 season where he finished 5th with 2 wins and another podium. The team made the name change to Faraday Future Dragon Racing in 2016, keeping Jérôme on board for a third year where he finished 18th. They changed back to Dragon Racing where he stayed for a fourth and final year, taking a single podium and 14th in the standings.
For his fifth year, d’Ambrosio made the move to Mahindra Racing for 13 races where he took two podiums and 67 points, leaving him in 11th. Jérôme has stuck with Mahindra Racing for the 2019 to 2020 season where he currently sits at 18th in the standings. He races alongside his team mate Pascal Wehrlein.